What is LoRa and LoRaWAN Technology?

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LoRa (Long Range) and LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network) are wireless communication technologies that use the sub-gigahertz radio frequency band to enable long-range, low-power communication for Internet of Things (IoT) devices. LoRa is a physical layer communication protocol, while LoRaWAN is a media access control (MAC) layer protocol that builds on top of LoRa.

LoRaWAN is designed for use in large-scale public networks, while LoRa can be used for both public and private networks. The technology is well-suited for IoT applications that require low power consumption and long-range communication, such as smart city infrastructure, industrial automation, and agriculture.

LoRa and LoRaWAN Technology

What is LoRa Technology?

LoRa (short for Long Range) is a wireless communication technology that is designed for low-power, wide-area networks. It is based on the spread spectrum modulation technique and uses a sub-gigahertz radio frequency band to enable communication over long distances (up to several kilometers) with low power consumption.

LoRa is commonly used in Internet of Things (IoT) applications such as smart city infrastructure, industrial automation, and asset tracking. It also enables low data rate communications that are bi-directional and secured. LoRa technology is also known as LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network) which is a low-power WAN protocol designed to wirelessly connect battery-operated “things” to the internet in regional, national or global networks.

LoRa Frequency Bands

LoRa (Long Range) is a technology that uses a specific frequency band to enable low-power, long-range communications for the Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The frequency band used by LoRa varies depending on the region in which it is being used. In Europe, the LoRa frequency band is 868 MHz, while in the United States and Canada, it is 915 MHz. In some other countries, the LoRa frequency band is 923 MHz.

LoRa Frequency Bands

LoRa End Device/Node

A LoRa (Long Range) end device or node is a device that is used in a LoRA wireless network for transmitting and receiving data. These devices typically have a long battery life and can operate over a wide range of temperatures and conditions, making them well-suited for use in remote or hard-to-reach locations. They are commonly used in applications such as IoT (Internet of Things) networks, smart city infrastructure, and industrial automation. LoRa devices use a proprietary protocol that allows for long-range communications (up to 15km in ideal conditions) and low power consumption, making it well-suited for low-data-rate applications such as sensor networks.

LoRA End Device/Node

Features of LoRa

  • RF center frequency of 868MHz
  • Small 22mm x 36mm x 3mm form factor. Can fit into almost anything.
  • Standard UART interface with hardware flow control (Clear-to-Send CTS) for long data packet handling
  • Easy to integrate into current devices that support RS-485, RS-232, RS-422 or 3.3V TTL serial data
  • Compatible with 5V power supply and interface.
  • +20 dBm-100 mW constant RF output vs. V supply.
  • Listen-before-talk and random back-off algorithm
  • 16bit node address and 16bit network address
  • Acknowledgment-based point-to-point communication with data hopping over repeaters
  • Settable channels, baud rate, air-data rate, and RF transmit power
  • Configurable parameters, signal-strength limit, ack timeout, network, and point address
  • Up to 2 Kilometers of outdoor open-air node-to-node range

LoRa Chipset

A LoRa chipset is a set of integrated circuits that are designed to work together to enable the operation of devices using the LoRa (Long Range) wireless communication protocol. The chipset typically includes a microcontroller unit (MCU), a radio frequency transceiver, and various other components such as amplifiers and filters. The LoRa protocol is designed for low-power, long-range wireless communications and is commonly used in Internet of Things (IoT) applications, including smart cities, industrial automation, and asset tracking.

LoRa Module

LoRa Modules

How to Transmit data

Lora Programming Libraries for Microcontroller

What is LoRaWAN?

LoRaWAN is a low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) protocol designed for the Internet of Things (IoT) devices that need to operate using battery power and connect to the internet at long distances. It utilizes the Long Range (LoRa) modulation technique to enable communication over long distances using low power consumption. The network protocol is designed to be used in unlicensed spectrum bands, making it a cost-effective solution for IoT devices to connect to the internet.

LoRaWAN End Device/Mote

A LoRaWAN end device, also known as a mote, is a type of wireless sensor device that uses the Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) protocol to communicate with other devices on a wireless network. These devices are typically low-power, battery-operated sensors that collect data on various environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and air quality. The data collected by the motes is then transmitted to a central gateway, which in turn sends the data to a cloud-based server for storage and analysis. LoRaWAN is a popular choice for IoT applications because it offers long-range, low power consumption, and secure communication.

LoRaWAN Modules

LoRa Modules

LoRaWAN Module: Common Architecture

LoRA/LoRAWAN Dev Board

LoRA/LoRAWAN Dev Board

LoRaWAN Network: Common Architecture

LoRaWAN Network: Sample Architecture

LoRaWAN Gateway/Concentrator

Both LoRa and LoRaWAN are designed to operate in the ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) band, which is a license-free frequency band that can be used for low-power wireless communications. This means that anyone can build and operate a LoRaWAN network without the need for a license.

Also Read: List of Smart Cities in India

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