Beginner’s Guide To Understanding The Internet of Things

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Hello, friends welcome to, in this post we are going to tell you about what is the Internet of things, How IoT works, Why IoT is important, what is a benefit of Internet of things, IoT Architecture, Future of the Internet of Things, what makes IoT a leading technology and many more. It’s a complete beginner’s guide to Understanding the Internet of Things.

Beginner’s Guide to Understanding The Internet of Things

In this article, you are reading a beginner’s guide to understanding the Internet of Things.

Also Read: Raspberry Pi and It’s Add on Boards Sense HAT

What is the Internet of things?

Internet: “Internet is a term given to the network that is formed by connecting computers globally. The Internet provides data highways to share information over the network from one place to another in the entire world.”

Things: “When you expand the capability of the Internet from connecting computers globally to connecting several small electronic devices, the Internet of Things is formed. Smart devices with smart connectivity create the Internet of Things (IoT).”

Definition of Internet of Things: An interconnected network of physical objects (lights, fans, sensors, etc.) contain embedded technology and virtual components (Virtual Machines, Simulated Objects, etc) which has the ability sense, communicate and interact over a network and share information with each other is known as an Internet of Things (IoT).

How IoT works?


The End to End Flow

Why IoT is important?

The importance of the Internet of things (IoT) can be judged by this fact that the time to come will be automation. Everything that man does or does is for the sole purpose of simplifying life. To live life comfortably. And for that, machines have to interact with us like our body parts, which means that they need sensors to detect and communicate with the Internet of Things (IoT) sensors come into play.

  1. The worldwide market for Internet of Things (IoT) solutions to reach $7.2 trillion in 2020 (IDC).
  2. Economic value-add is forecast to be $1.9 trillion across sectors in 2020 (Gartner)
  3. Leading Industry examples: utilities, insurance, agriculture, factory, automobiles, transport, consumer, etc

for example. If a pharmaceutical industry is an Internet of Things (IoT) compatible, this means that to keep the medication at a certain temperature, we wanted to control your AC as required and the IoT devices can trigger events and perform different actions depending on the triggers you have defined during configuration the devices.

Benefits of Internet of things

The Internet of Things is the ability to collect data about the environment around you. Before, everyone lived outside, so they had judgment. Today everyone is on the phone. Thus, the information should be collected automatically. After the collection, it is converted into intelligence via a data analyst or artificial intelligence, which then makes a decision based on this, past data, and past actions (machine learning).

It’s the next generation to put sensors everywhere. If you built a car after 2004, you can install a sensor and see what’s wrong with the car most of the time. This same idea can be applied to many other places. If you know how much water an area receives on the farm, because you have small electronic devices every 5 meters, you can only apply water to areas that need it. Internet of Things (IoT) is a way to collect data on physical phenomena much more quickly and regularly.

So, the benefits are to somehow retain that past knowledge that has been lost to today’s mobile generation.

IoT Architecture

Reference Architecture


There are 4 Stage of IoT Architecture:

Internet of Things (IoT) is not just Internet-connected consumer devices. In fact, the Internet of Things (IoT) is the technology that builds systems capable of autonomously sensing and responding to stimuli from the real world without human intervention. We, therefore, need to develop a process flow for a definite framework or architecture over which an Internet of Things (IoT) solution is built.

Stage 1: Sensors, Actuators, Devices etc…

Sensors: Sensors have to convert information from the physical environment into a signal.

Actuators: Act on the signal from the sensors and convert it into an output.

Objects are equipped with sensors and actuators, thus given the ability to emit, accept, and process signals. The “Things” further send this collected information to hardware components such as Arduino, Raspberry Pi, etc.

A “THING”, in the context of the Internet of things (IoT), is an entity or physical device that has a unique identifier, an embedded system and the ability to transfer data over a network.

Note: Every IoT device is an Embedded System. But not all embedded systems are IoT Devices.

Device Hardware: Devices constitute the “things” in the Internet of Things. They act as the interface between the real and digital worlds. The first thing to consider is whether your product is the connected device itself or your product is turning an existing device into a connected device by adding instrumentation. At this level of the stack, it is also important to understand some implications of cost, size, ease of deployment, reliability, useful life, etc.

Stage 2: Edge and Communication

The data from the sensors start in an analogue form which needs to be aggregated and converted into digital streams for further processing downstream.

Stage 2 systems often sit in close proximity to the sensors and actuator.

For example, a pump can contain half a dozen sensors and actuators that feed the data to a data aggregation device that also digitizes the data, and an adjacent gateway device or server will then process the data and transmit it to step 3 or step 4.

Communication: Communication includes both the physical networks and the protocols you will be using. For example, if your system has ten sensors, does each sensor need to monitor and communicate with the cloud?

Or should you have ten simpler (and cheaper) sensors that communicate with a central gateway for aggregation and long-distance transmission of data?

It will determine not only how you get data in and out from the Cloud (for example using Wi-Fi, WAN, LAN, etc.), but also, how you communicate with third-party devices.

Device Software: Device software is responsible for integrating features and in turn converting the Device Hardware into a “Smart Device”. The device software allows you to set up communication to the cloud or to other local devices. The software layer of the device can be divided into two categories:

  1. Edge operating system
  2. Periphery applications

Step 3: Data Storage (Cloud Platform)

Once the IoT data has been digitized and aggregated, it is ready to enter the IT realm, but the data may require additional processing before entering the data center.

Edge computing systems can be located in remote offices or other peripheral locations, but they are typically located in the facility or location where the sensors reside closer to the sensors, such as in a wiring closet.

For example, rather than transmitting raw vibration data for pumps, you can aggregate and convert the data, analyze it, and only send projections showing when each device will fail or need repair.

Cloud Platform: The cloud platforms are the backbone of your Internet of Things (IoT) solution Your infrastructure will serve as the platform for these key areas

  1. Data Collection and Management
  2. Analytics
  3. Cloud APIs

You need to evaluate the cost and complexity of the development of the Cloud platform via a build versus buy analysis.

Stage 4: Applications and Services (Analytics, Machine Learning, etc…)

Data that needs more in-depth processing, and where feedback doesn’t have to be immediate, get forwarded to the physical data center or cloud-based systems, where more powerful IT systems can analyze, manage, and securely store the data.

You can run a deeper analysis and combine your sensor data with data from other sources for deeper insight.

Cloud applications: Your end-user applications are part of the system that your customer will see and interact with. These apps will most likely be web-based and depending on your users’ needs, you might need separate apps for desktop, mobile, and even portable devices. Applications can also be divided into customer applications and internal applications.


  • Old ways of thinking can be dangerous.
  • Understand the business model.
  • Beware of new patterns: eventual consistency, etc.
  • Don’t focus on the device.
  • Avoid analysis paralysis. Get it done!

Architecture: Summary

  • Architecture is at the center of the Internet of Things (IoT).
  • Internet of Things (IoT) is Advanced “Modern” Architecture.
  • Internet of Things (IoT) Projects are Complex – Teamwork is necessary.
  • These projects are mission-critical and difficult.
  • We can’t learn everything – but we need breadth.
  • Don’t be afraid, go for it and learn.

The Future of the Internet of Things

The Internet landscape is changing day by day. It’s not just smartphones or computers, laptops and tablets connected to the Internet, there are a multitude of devices connected to the Internet. The list of devices connected to the Internet includes door locks, toasters, robotic vacuum cleaners’ machines and toys. Today you can buy everything connected to the Internet.

Here are some predictions of the internet of Things Future (IoT):

  • By 2025, it is estimated that there will be more than 20 billion Internet of Things (IoT) devices.
  • 5G Networks will help to fuel the Internet of Things (IoT) growth
  • Most of the cities will become a “smart city”.
  • The artificial intelligence will come up with bigger things in the Internet of Things.
  • 5G’s arrival will also open the door to new privacy and security concerns.
  • Routers will be more secure and smarter.
  • Cars will get smarter.

What makes IoT a leading technology?

There are many devices with Low Cost and Low Power consumption but lacks Computing Capacity. On the other hand, we also have devices with High computing capacity but there is an increase in cost. So, there is a high demand for devices with Low Cost, Low Power Consumption, and High Computing Capacity; which we find in an IoT device.

Major properties of an IoT device?

IoT devices should have:

  • Sensing – To capture data.
  • Computing – Process captured data.
  • Communicating – To send useful data which is extracted after data processing.

So, we have finally discussed our topics which are – about what is the Internet of things, How IoT works, Why IoT is important, what is a benefit of Internet of things, IoT Architecture, Future of the Internet of Things, what makes IoT a leading technology.

So, there is all about the internet of things which we need to know. We hope you get a clear understanding of everything in this article. If you want to ask anything, please feel free to contact us by commenting down below.

Also Read: Sensors For The IoT Device | Types of IoT Sensors

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